NanoSomiX Technology Overview

Comprehensive brain-derived extracellular vesicle (BDE) isolation and characterization

Extracellular vesicles (EV)

EVs are present in a variety of biological fluids, including blood, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and urine. While originally thought to be solely a method for cells to discard waste, more recent research indicates that they represent a unique cell-to-cell communication mechanism. As part of their formation, they incorporate portions of the cell membrane along with cytoplasmic constituents from inside the cell of origin. EVs prepared by NanoSomiX methods include exosomes and microvesicles ranging in size from ~50 to 400 nanometers that are released into the blood from many cell types. Specific EVs from targeted cell types are selectively captured by biomarker specific antibodies using our proprietary technology.

NanoSomiX technology platform

NanoSomiX has achieved significant advancements in isolating plasma-borne BDEs and the assessment of associated clinically relevant biomarkers. Our BDE technology originated with the immunoisolation of CD171+ neuron-derived exosomes from human plasma as originally published by Dr. Ed Goetzl. A patent for this groundbreaking work was issued earlier this year.

We have since expanded the original assay technology to include a 3 dimensional approach with multiple patents pending:

  • The first dimension is expanding our cell sources from neurons to now include astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and microglia/macrophages. We further refined neuron capture to include neurotransmitter specific pre- and post-synaptic site specific neurons, such as dopaminergic, serotonergic neurons, etc.
  • The second dimension is the ability to analyze surface-associated proteins and core/cargo proteins of extracellular vesicles (EV) separately. This scientific enhancement is extremely important in helping to improve on the particular selection of the biomarker proteins. Because biomarkers located in the core/cargo are mother cell-specific, but surface-bound biomarkers are not necessarily of mother cell origin, a large quantity of surface biomarkers can often mask the value of core/cargo biomarkers. More importantly, core/cargo material is applicable to mass spectroscopy for proteomics and metabolomics analysis.
  • The third dimension is to analyze various brain cell-specific, function-specific, or pathological biomarkers in EV. NanoSomiX has identified and quantified several biomarkers, which when at non-normal levels or modulated, can potentially signal change events in the brain such as those that may occur in neurologic disorders.

These 3 analytical dimensions can work synergistically to identify appropriate biomarkers quickly and efficiently. In addition, our research has shown that EV quantities in plasma vary substantially from individual to individual, and therefore a normalization method is required to analyze each target biomarker result. In response to this challenge, we developed a unique method to enumerate each subset of BDE in plasma. These innovations provide a means to drive clinically relevant biomarker discovery and assessment using blood or other biologic fluids.

Collaborative Research

NanoSomiX is currently focused on clinical target discovery and validation using the above described technology platforms through various collaborations in both academia and industry. The clinical areas currently targeted include Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, traumatic brain injury and concussion. We operate in a federally regulated clinical laboratory (known as a Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) laboratory). Therefore, laboratory validation of EV biomarkers is available for research studies or specific markers, which may be transitioned to a formal Laboratory Developed Test (LDT) in a timely fashion if desired. Moreover, because these assays are all based on automation-friendly formats, they are applicable to high throughput test development.

We are very interested in developing assays for interested parties that have specific biomarkers or clinical samples they are pursuing. Our development team will work closely with you to identify the best approach to measuring your biomarkers. Examples of areas where we may be able to make an impact in your work:

For pharmaceutical companies:

  • Detection and monitoring of drug or its metabolites in the core/cargo of human BDE
  • Detection and monitoring of drug target proteins on the surface and core/cargo of human plasma BDE
  • Assessment of BDE and associated biomarkers in preclinical animal models

For academia:

  • Target biomarker discovery for various neurological disorders
  • Monitoring of disease progression based on plasma BDE in clinical samples or animal models

More information, please contact Vicki Clements at vclements@nanosomix.com or 949-280-6050.